The history of El Salvador begins with several Mesoamerican countries, notably the Kuzkatlakes, as well as Lenka and Maya. El Salvador has an enriched history full with a glorious past. In the early sixteenth century, the Spanish Empire conquered territory and was incorporated in the Viceroyalty of New Spain ruled from Mexico City. This article will share about El Salvador history for beginners.
El Salvador history
In 1821, El Salvador history facts denote, the country first gained independence from Spain as part of the Mexican Empire, only to be separated two years later as part of the Federal Republic of Central America. After the abolition of the republic in 7, Honduras and Nicaragua in El Salvador became sovereign until the formation of a short-lived union called the Greater Republic of Central America, which lasted from 1 to 5.
In the 20th century, El Salvador history witnessed to suffering long-standing political and economic instability by the coup, rebellion, and succession of authoritarian rulers. El Salvador’s history facts denote the devastating Salvadoran civil war in the 9th decade ended the ongoing socioeconomic inequality and civil unrest, which was fought between a military-led government and a coalition of leftist guerrilla groups. The dispute was concluded in the 12th by a mutual agreement, which established a multi-constitutional republic, which still exists today.
El Salvador’s economy historically was dominated by agriculture, beginning with the most important crop of the colonial period, the blue plant (Spanish isle), and then came after coffee, which in the early 20th century accounted for 90 percent of export earnings.
Before the Spanish conquest
Prior to the Spanish conquest related to el salvador history, the territory known as El Salvador was composed of three tribal states and several kingdoms. In central El Salvador, there were indigenous peoples or pipiles, a tribe of people traveling to Nahua who had lived there for a long time. “Pipil was a determined man who resolutely resisted the Spanish effort to extend his dominion to the south.”
The eastern region was populated and managed by Lancas. The northern region of the Lampa High River was populated and managed by the Mayan inhabitants of Cortes. Their culture was similar to their Aztec and Mayan neighbors.
“Several notable archaeological sites contain other evidence of habitat and daily life some 1,400 years ago; they have been found beneath 6 meters (20 feet) of volcanic ash.”
Spanish conquest (1524-1515)
The first Spanish attempt to control El Cierro of Cuzcatlin, or the Lordship of Cuzcatl ।n, failed in 1524, when Pedro de Alvarado was forced to retreat by the Pipil warriors in the battle of Acacatella. In 1525, he returned and succeeded in bringing this district under the control of Audiencia, Mexico.
Spanish Rules (1525–1609)
Pedro de Alvarado named this area for Jesus Christ – El Salvador (“The Savior”). He was appointed its first governor, holding this position until his death in the 5th. The region was subjected to a short biography of Panama from 5 to 5, while most parts of Central America were under a new Audencia in Guatemala.
El Salvador history: Independence (1821)
In the early nineteenth century, Napoleon’s occupation in Spain triggered a revolt throughout Spain. In New Spain, all the struggles for freedom seekers took place in the center of the region from 1810 to 1821, which is today central Mexico. Once defeated in the Viceroy’s capital-Mexico City today, the news of independence was transmitted to all regions of New Spain, including the obscenity of Guatemala’s former captaincy.
This was declared publicly in the 1920s through the Freedom Act. After the declaration of independence, the Parliament of New Spain had the intention of establishing a Commonwealth by which the King of Spain, Ferdinand VII, would also be Emperor of New Spain, but both countries would have to be governed by separate laws and by their own legislative offices. If the King refuses, the law provides for a member of the House of Bourbon to enter the throne of New Spain. Ferdinand VIII, however, did not recognize independence, saying that Spain would not allow any other European prince to sit on the throne of New Spain.
At the request of Parliament, the ruling President Agust ।n de Iturbaid was declared Emperor of New Spain but Parliament also decided to name New Spain as Mexico. From 1821 to 1823, the Mexican Empire was the official name given to this monarchical system. The territories of the Mexican Empire consisted of continental purposes and the provinces of New Spain, respectively (including the former Captain-General of Guatemala).
El Salvador appealed to the United States of America for fear of inclusion in Mexico. But in 1823, a revolution in Mexico overthrew Emperor Augustan de Iturbide and a new Mexican Congress.
ss The Central American stimulus voted to allow them to decide their own fate. That year, five Central American stimuli were formed under General Manuel Jose Arce, the United Provinces of Central America.
In 1832, Anastasio led a domestic uprising against Crollos and Mestizos in Santiago Nunuelco, a small town in the province of Aquino La Paz. The source of dissatisfaction with the indigenous peoples is the regular abuse and lack of cultivated land. The problem of land distribution has been the cause of many political conflicts in the history of Salvador.
In Central America, the Central American Federation disappeared and became the an independent republic of El Salvador.
Coffee to Blue: Displacement
The Elite Landed Elite single export crop in El Salvador, dependent on the Nile. As a result, other lands were especially attracted to the poor livelihoods of the peasants surrounding the former volcanic eruptions and to the specific lands of the upper classes, keeping them close to the Indian community. In the mid-19th century, blue was replaced by chemical dyes. Landing elites have bought new products, coffee instead of these crops.
The lands that were once dependent on goods (blue) suddenly became quite valuable. The elite-controlled legislature and the president passed obscurity laws that removed people from their land, and most of the Salvadoran people were left landless. Their former lands were exploited in the coffee plantation (Finkas).
Hector Lindo-Fuentes’ book, Weak Foundations: The Economy of El Salvador in the Nineteenth Century, emphasized that “the parallel process of state-building and the expansion of the coffee industry resulted in the formation of an elite class to rule El Salvador in the twentieth century.”
The feudal lords who ruled the history of El Salvador voraciously. Although the constitution was repeatedly amended in favor of feudalists, several elements remained in place throughout.
Wealthy landowners were given the most power in the national legislature and economy (for example, in the 120th constitution, there was an exclusive legislature of u০ deputies, where 12 seats were reserved for landowners). The elected president was also given considerable power throughout the blocked elites. In each of El Salvador’s four regional divisions, the president was appointed by a governor. The rapid change of the constitution is largely due to the efforts of different presidents.
Coffee gave birth to elites in the late nineteenth century, and since then economic development has revolved around them.
Fourteen families “Las Caesario Familius” is a reference to the aristocratic rule that controlled much of El Salvador’s land and wealth in the 19th and 20th centuries, including De Sola, Llach, Hill, Meza-Ayu, Duenas, Dalton, Ferrufino, Regalado, Querenz and Salve.
In the past 35 years, the people of El Salvador’s economic power have changed their lives: land-owned agricultural exporters have transformed into powerful Financia.
El Salvador’s wealth has been re-consolidated in some hands, which is an unprecedented event in the history of this country or the Central American region. From the 14 elite families of the last century, the capital is now distributed among 8 strong business groups.
Before the start of the Civil War in 7, the Salvadoran economy revolved around three agricultural products: coffee (which was famous), sugarcane and cotton. They define the life of this small country whose population is not more than 3 million.
Eight business people are now dominating the economic life of El Salvador, and they are primarily owned by the descendants of the original 14 families of coffee elites. These 3 business groups are:  Grupo Cuscatl ।n, Banagracola, Banco Salvadario, Banco de Comercio, Grupo Agrisal, Grupo Poma, Grupo de Sola and Grupo Hill.
The military dictatorship (1931–1979)
During the year of General Maximiliano Hernandez Martnez’s coup in 9 and the ousting of him in the 5th, there was brutal suppression of rural resistance. The most noteworthy event was the 1932 Salvadoran peasant uprising led by Farabundo Mart, the chief of the Izalco tribe, Feliciano Ama, and the chief of the Xu, Francisco “Chico” Sanchez, the Izalco subdivision. The revenge of the government is commonly called La Matanza (‘Zabai’), which followed the days of the protests. In this ‘matanza’, 5 to 1 to 5 indigenous and political opponents were killed, imprisoned or banished. Until that time, Salvadoran was an army officer except for a temporary president. The periodic presidential election was rarely free or fair.
From the 1970s to the 1970s, autocratic governments used political repression and limited reforms to retain power even after the repression of democracy. The National Consensus Party was in power from the early 1960s until 1979. General Fidel Sanchez Hernandez was president from 1967 to। 1972, while Colonel Arturo A. Molina was General Carlos Humberto Romero.
In the fifties, there was great political instability. In the 1972 presidential election, opposition to military rule was led by Jose Napoleon Duarte, leader of the Christian Democratic Party (PDC)
Under. Is united. Duterte’s broad-based reform movement was defeated amid widespread fraud. Subsequent protests and an attempted coup were crushed and Duterte deported. These events erode the hope of reform in a democratic way and persuaded anti-government people that armed rebellion was the only way to achieve change.
The Salvadoran Civil War (1–2–12)
In 1979, the reformist revolutionary government took over the junta. Both the extreme right and left have now disagreed with the government, and increased political violence has quickly turned into a civil war. Initially, the poorly trained Salvadoran Armed Forces (ESAF) were subjected to repression and indiscriminate killings, the most notorious of which was the December 3 Mojot massacre.
The United States supported the government and Cuba and other communist states now supported organized rebels. Ferrando Mart as the National Liberation Front (FMLN). The Chappellepec Peace Accords marked the end of the war in 122. The FMLN became one of the leading political parties.
According to the peace treaty, the military was forbidden to play an internal security role, except in the extraordinary circumstances by amending the constitution. During the entire process of Salvadoran militarization, the Treasury Police, the National Guard, and the National Police disappeared and military intelligence was transferred to civilian control. Nine months before the schedule, the military had reduced the required level of peacekeeping from the war-time peak to 000,000 by 12,3 levels.
By the end of the year, less than 6,000 people, including uniformed and uniformed personnel, had joined the ESAF’s army, navy and air force members. Following the ad hoc commission’s recommendation, the removal of military officers accused of human rights abuses and corruption was completed in May.
The military’s new doctrine, professionalism and complete withdrawal from political and economic affairs have made it one of El Salvador’s most respected institutions.
Of the former guerrillas and soldiers who fought in the war, but more than 5,3 beneficiaries, who were terminated under the land transfer program on January 5, according to the agreement, did not gain land. Most of them also received agricultural loans.
Post-War Period (12 – present)
FMLN participated as a political party in the 4 presidential elections; Armando Calderon Sol, the Arena candidate, won the election. During his reign, Calderon Sol implemented a plan to privatize a number of major state enterprises and other neoliberal policies.
The FMLN has grown stronger since the 1997 legislative and municipal elections, where they earned the mayor of San Salvador. However, internal sections of the presidential candidate’s election have damaged the party’s image. RANNA, with its candidate Francisco Guillermo Flores Perez, again took office as president in the March 8, 2014 election.
Arena wins again during the presidential election on March 27, this time for the third time the candidate Elias Antonio has drawn the party with Saka Gonzalez. In the same election, economist Anna Vilma became the first female vice president of Albanese de Escobar El Salvador.
The election result also marked the end of the minor parties (PCN, PDC, and CD), who failed to obtain the required 5% by electoral law to maintain their registration as a party.
Fifteen years after the Peace Accord, El Salvador’s democratic process relied on a formally balanced system as the Legislature declared a general amnesty after the deal. As a result of this general amnesty, no one has been convicted of crimes committed before, during and after the war.
Later in the North, El Salvador began to experience problems with high crime “mars” or gangs, largely due to the deportation of Salvadorans living illegally in the United States. The La Mano Dura and Mono Superdura programs designed to combat crime have failed.
Currently, Salvador’s largest foreign exchange source is remittance sent by Salvadorians abroad; They are estimated at over $ 2 billion. There are more than 2 million Salvadorans living abroad in various countries including the United States, Canada, Mexico, Guatemala, Costa Rica, Australia, and Sweden.
FMLN candidate Carlos Mauricio Funes Cartagena, former journalist, won the presidential election in the 27th presidential election. It was the first victory of a leftist party in the history of El Salvador.
Funes took over as president with Salvador Sanchez Siren on June 1, 23. After being accused of illegal prosperity and money laundering, Funes fled to Nicaragua, where he is still living in 2002.
On the 27th, Serena took over as president after winning the election as a candidate for the leftist Farabando Marte National Liberation Front (FMLN). Siren was a guerrilla leader in the Civil War and he is responsible for the presidency
The first rebel to emerge. Under his leadership, in April 2017, El Salvador became the first country in the world to ban metal excavation in its territory, due to the environment and public health.
On February 28, Nobel Bucale, millennium, who has not been affiliated with any of the major parties in the country since the Civil War, was elected president of El Salvador.
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