September 25, 2021
History of Latin America

History of Latin America – Twists and Thrills

(Last Updated On: April 16, 2021)

The word Latin America refers to the Spanish and Portuguese-speaking countries of the New World. The history of Latin America is enriched with many incidents, facts, twists, turns, and achievements. This article will share a synopsis of the History of Latin America with the readers.

History of Latin America

Before the arrival of the Europeans in the 15th and early 16th centuries, the region had many indigenous peoples living, most of whom had advanced civilization, especially from the south; Olmec, Maya, Muiska, and Inca as the History of Latin America.

The territory came under the control of the Crowns of Spain and Portugal, which suppressed both Roman Catholics and their native languages. Both the Spaniards and the Portuguese brought African slaves to their colonies, especially in areas where Aboriginal peoples were absent for work.

In the early nineteenth century of the History of Latin America, almost all Spanish-American regions achieved independence by armed struggle, excluding Cuba and Puerto Rico. Brazil, which became a monarchy separate from Portugal, became a republic in the late nineteenth century.

As a result of political independence from the European monarchy, black slavery was not abolished in the new sovereign countries. Political independence led to political and economic instability in Spain soon after independence.

Great Britain and the United States had a significant impact in the post-independence era, creating a kind of neo-colonial colonialism, which preserved the political sovereignty of a country, but foreign powers exercised considerable power in the economic field.

Source of words and definitions

The idea that all romance cultures have a cultural or racial connection with a part of the United States dates back to the 7th century of the History of Latin America, especially in the writings of French Saint-Simeon Michel Chevalier, who posited that the United States lived in the region. People of the “Latin Nation” and since that may be allies with “Latin Europe” in the fight of “Teutonic Europe,” “Anglo-Saxon America” ​​and “Slavic Europe”.

The idea was later adopted by intellectuals of Latin America and political leaders of the end of the mid-nineteenth century, who no longer viewed Spain or Portugal as a cultural model, but sought France.

Under the Third Napoleon, the actual word “Latin America” ​​was coined in France and played a role in promoting cultural relations with France, transforming France as the cultural and political leader of the region, and establishing Maximilian as Emperor of Mexico in the History of Latin America.

In the mid-twentieth century, especially in the United States, the United States had the tendency to occasionally classify all regions of the South as “Latin America,” especially when the discussion focused more on the contemporary political and economic relations of the rest of the world than on its cultural aspects together.

Like the United Nations Geoskim “Latin America and the Caribbean “Steps have been taken to avoid talking about the larger form.

Since Latin American concepts and definitions are extremely modern, only returning to the nineteenth century, talking about the History of Latin America before the arrival of Europeans is anachronistic.

Nevertheless, the History of Latin America as well as diverse cultures that existed in the pre-Columbian era had a strong and direct impact on the societies that emerged as a result of their conquest, and therefore cannot be ignored. They are introduced in the next section.

Pre-Columbian Period

Latin America now has what it has been for several millennia, probably 30,000 years. There are many models of migration to the New World. Proper dating of most of the primary text sources is difficult because there are some text sources. However, highly developed civilizations developed at different times and places, such as the Andes and Mesoamerica.

The Colon colonial era

Christopher Columbus landed in America on the 12th in the History of Latin America. Subsequently, Europe’s major maritime powers transmitted trade networks and colonies to the New World and campaigned to convert the local people to Christianity.

Due to the presence of large, settled societies such as the Aztecs, Inca, Maya, and Mucha, Spain concentrated in the central and southern parts of the United States to form an empire allotted by the Tordesillas Treaty, which had human and material resources, and could absorb large volumes of silver and gold.

The Portuguese created their empire in Brazil, which fell under their influence because of the Tordesillas Treaty, improving the land for sugar production since there was a large, complex society or mineral resources shortage.

During the European colonization of the Western Hemisphere, most of the primitive populations died mainly from disease. Colombia has been known as an exchange, among which diseases like smallpox and ham are destructive populations of decaying populations without any immunity. The size of the indigenous population has been studied

In modern times historians have written, however, in his brief account of the Dominican freer Bartolome de las Casas raising the alarm in the early days of the Spanish settlement in the Caribbean.

The conquerors and colonists of Latin America also had a major influence on the Latin American population. The Spanish conquerors committed brutal violence against the locals. According to Bartolomeo de las Casas, the Europeans worked to kill the indigenous population, separating the men and women so that they could not reproduce, and the Shika

And killed any locals who fled with the dog. Las Casas claimed that the Spanish locals worked in the mines all day and “checked the sharpness of their blades” on the locals. Las Casas estimated that about three million natives died in war, slavery, and labor.

Speaking of cruelty, Las Casas said, “Who would believe this in future generations? I could hardly believe that I wrote it myself as a wise eyewitness.”

Native culture and religion were banned because the Spanish were now in power. The Spaniards even burned the Maya Codeis (like the book).

This codis contains information on astrology, religion, s, and behavior. Today there are four codices which are named; are the Dresden Codex, the Paris Codex, the Madrid Codex, and the HI Codex.

Religion in the colonial era

The Spanish Crown regulated immigration to its foreign colonies, with travelers having to register with the House of Trade in Seville. Since the Crown expelled non-Christians (Jews, crypto-Jews, and Muslims) as Christians, the background of travelers was examined.

The ability to control the flow of people enabled the Spanish Crown to control the religious purity of its foreign empire. In their attempt to allow only Christians to enter the New World, the Spanish Crown was rigorous and needed evidence of religion through personal testimony. Specific examples of individuals related to the Crown provide an opportunity to understand how religion influenced entry into the new world.

In 1616, Francesca de Figueiro, an African-Iberian woman seeking to enter the United States, applied to the Spanish Crown for a license to travel to Cartagena. On his behalf, he was a witness to his religious purity, Elvira de Medina wrote, “This witness knows that he and his parents and grandparents were ancient Christians and useless castes and descendants.

They are not Moorish or Jewish people or those. Recently converted to our Holy Catholic faith. “[3] Despite Francesca’s race, she was allowed to enter the United States in 1601 As the decree was presented, “My President and Official Judges Case de Compression of Seville. I order you to allow Francesca de Figueroa to visit the province of Cartagena …”

In colonial America. This example points to the importance of religion when trying to travel. Persons had to work within Christianity guidelines to apply for the Crown and to allow them to travel.

Religion in Latin America

At one time, religion was still prevalent in the New World which should be considered in everyday life. Many laws were based on religious beliefs and traditions, and often these laws clashed with the cultures of many colonial Latin American states.

One of the central conflicts was between African and Iberian culture; As a result of this different culture, both Africans and Iberians throughout Latin America faced witch trials. According to European tradition, “witch – a bruja – rejected God and worshiped the devil and instead worshiped the Sabbath.”

This rejection of the word was viewed as hateful and was not tolerated. Spain or Latin America by an authority. A specific example, the trial of the Pala de Igilooz, shows how appealing to Christianity can help reduce punishment even in magical trials.

Paula de Iguiluz was a woman of African descent who was born and raised as a slave in Santo Domingo, once in her youth learned the business of witchcraft and was publicly known as a magician. “In 1620, Paula was accused of witchcraft (breweries), prophecy and apostasy (proclamation against the doctrine of the Church).”

Paula was tried in 1627 and her hearing began without much knowledge of the Crown’s method of taking legal action. Applying to Christianity and declaring faith requires if a person is hopeful that the sentence will be reduced. Upon learning quickly, Paula correctly recited “The Lord’s Prayer, Religion, Salve Regina and Ten Commas.

Before the second hearing of his trial, the Endeavor finally concluded his testimony by asking our Lord to forgive [me] for his terrible sins and errors and pleas.

At the third hearing of the trial, a “merciful punishment” of Christianity and faith. Occupation appeals allow Paula to return to her former life as a slave with minimal punishment. The Spanish Crown placed a high emphasis on the preservation of Christianity in Latin America; this preservation of Christianity allowed colonialism to rule Latin America for more than three hundred years.

Century Revolutions: A Post-Era Age

Following the model of the American and French revolutions, much of Latin America gained independence by 1825. Independence destroyed the old common market that existed after the barbaric reforms under the Spanish Empire and created a dependency on the financial investment provided by the nations. Already industrialization has begun.

Thus, Western European powers, especially Great Britain and France, and the United States have begun to play a larger role, as the region becomes economically dependent on these nations. Independence also created a new, self-consciously “Latin American” ruling class and intellectuals who occasionally avoided the Spanish and Portuguese models to reshape their society.

These elites sought other Catholic European models, especially France, for a new Latin American culture, but did not seek input from indigenous peoples.

Spanish America’s failed attempt to consolidate most of the primary major states arising out of independence – Gran Colombia, the Federal Republic of Central America, and the United Provinces – has led to multiple domestic and inter-state conflicts in South America, leading to new countries. Brazil, unlike its Hispanic neighbors, maintains a united monarchy and avoids the problem of civil and interstate war.

Civil wars were often fights between federalists and centrists who spent their civilian political life emphasizing themselves through the military oppression of their adversaries.

New countries have inherited the cultural diversity of the colonial period and sought to create a new identity around the shared European (Spanish or Portuguese) language and culture.

However, there was a culture and class division within each country that created tensions and hurt nationality.

The next few decades were a long process of creating nationalism. Most of the new national borders were created centuries ago around the purpose of the jurisdiction of Odissinia or Bourbon, which became a field of political identity.

In many areas the border was unstable, as new territories fought with each other, especially in the second half of the nineteenth century. The more important conflicts are the Paraguayan War (1864-70; also known as the Triple Alliance War) and the Pacific War (1879-84) in the History of Latin America.

The Paraguayan War fought against Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay against Paraguay, which was completely defeated. As a result, Paraguay faced a population-based decline: the population rose from an estimated 129,1 in 189 to 227,6 in 189, and in this last population there were only 25,3 males. In the Pacific war, Chile defeated the combined forces of Bolivia and Peru.

Chile gained control of the Saltpeter-rich territories, formerly controlled by Peru and Bolivia, and Bolivia became a land-locked nation.

During the mid-century, the region faced the growing United States, seeking to expand into the North American continent and to influence the hemisphere. In the Mexican-American War (1846-48), Mexico lost more than half its territory to the United States.

In the 1860s France indirectly sought to control Mexico. In South America, Brazil consolidates control of large swaths of the Amazon Basin at the expense of its neighbors.

In the 1880s, the United States implemented aggressive policies for the protection and expansion of all Latin American political and economic interests, which culminated in the creation of the Pan-American Conference, the successful completion of the Panama Canal, and the intervention of the United States in the final Cuban war of independence.

The export of natural resources provided the basis for most Latin American economies in the nineteenth century, allowing the rich elite to develop. The restructuring of Colonial economic and political realities created a huge gap between the rich and the poor, with landed elites controlling vast lands and resources.

For example, in Brazil, 1% of the land was owned by 5% of the population. Gold digging and fruit raising, especially for these wealthy landowners, were exclusive. These “Great Owners” fully control the local activities and, moreover, the Chief Imam

The main source of driver and wages. This led farmers to a society whose connection to the larger political realities was linked to farming and mining.

As a result of the local political instability and the nature of the economy, the emergence of the Caudillo depends on the military ability and patronage of those whose military chiefs were able. Political governments were at least theoretically democratic, and they took the form of presidential or parliamentary governments.

Both had a tendency to hold the hand of a condillo or a nobleman. The political landscape was occupied by conservatives, who believed that preserving the old social classification was the best guarantee of national stability and prosperity.

History of Latin America

The former has worked, and the liberals, who tried to make progress by liberating the economy and individual enterprise. Popular developments were often influential and suppressed: During the Thousand Days War, a Colombian uprising between 8 and 12 killed many people. Some states administered a bit of democracy: Uruguay and partly Argentina, Chile, Costa Rica, and Colombia.

Others were evidently elitist or authoritarian, though these oligarchs and Codiloras sometimes enjoyed the support of the majority of the people. All of these measures sought to maintain Latin America’s profitable position in the global economy as a raw material supplier.

Twenty-first century 1900-1929

At the beginning of the century, the United States continued its interventionist attitude, which aimed directly at its interests in the region. It was officially published in Theodore Roosevelt’s Big Stick doctrine, which revised the old Monroe doctrine, aimed at preventing European intervention in the hemisphere.

After the end of the Spanish-American War, the new government of Cuba and the United States of America signed the Platte Amendment in 2002, allowing the United States to intervene in Cuba when the United States deemed it necessary. In Colombia, the United States sought permission to exempt a territory in Panama to build the much-anticipated canal across the isthmus.

The Colombian government opposed it, but a Panamanian uprising gave the United States a chance. The United States is a supporter of Panama’s independence and the new country is exempt. The United States was not the only intervention in these regions.

During the first decade of the 20th century, there were several military invasions in Central America and the Caribbean, mostly for commercial interests, which became known as the “Art War.”

In the second decade of the century, Mexico experienced the largest political upheaval. In the 5th, President Perfirio Dodge, who has been in office for five years, promised that he would resign in the 5th. Francisco I Madri, a moderate liberal who aimed to modernize the country during the Socialist Revolution, launched an election campaign.

Dodge, however, changed his mind and ran for office again. Madero was arrested on election day and Daz declared the winner. These events provoked a revolt, which began with the Mexican Revolution. Revolutionary movements were organized and some key leaders appeared: Pancho Villa in the north, Emiliano Zapata in the south, and Madrid in Mexico City.

Maduro’s forces defeated the Federal Army in early 7th, took temporary control of the government, and later won the second election in November 11. Madro adopted moderates to implement greater democracy in the political system but failed to convince many regional leaders. What turned out to be a revolutionary situation. Maduro’s failure to oppose black claims led Zapata to resume revolution by breaking with Maduro. February 18, 1913, Victorian Huerta, a conservative general, organized a coup with the assistance of the United States.

Four days later Mero was killed. Other revolutionary leaders, such as Villa, Zapata, and Venustiano Caranza, who continued to oppose the federal government militarily, are now under Huerta’s control. Alize Zapata and Villa took Mexico City on March 7, but found themselves outside their constituents in the capital and returned to their respective bases.

This enabled Karanja to take control of the central government. He then organized the suppression of the rebel army in Villa and Zapata, especially led by General Alvaro Obregon. The Mexican Constitution of 1717, still the current constitution, was announced but not initially implemented.

Efforts against other revolutionary leaders continued. Jafata was assassinated on April 7, 9th. Carranza himself was assassinated on May 7, 2004, with Opergon, who was officially elected later in the year. Villa was eventually assassinated in 1923 in the History of Latin America. With the removal of key rivals, Obergan is able to combine power and relative peacocks

E was back in Mexico. Although a liberal government was implemented under the constitution, some aspirations of the working class and the rural population remained unfulfilled. (See also, Agricultural Land Reform in Mexico.)

Although the reputation of Germany and German culture in Latin America after the war was high, it did not return to the pre-war period. “

Sports

The sport has become increasingly popular, drawing enthusiastic fans to the big studs. The International Olympic Committee (IOC) worked to encourage Olympic ideals and participation. Following the 122 Latin American Games in Rio de Janeiro, the IOC helped establish the National Olympic Committee and prepare for future competitions. In Brazil, sports and political rivalry parties play international sports

Fighting for control slowed progress. The participation was greatly enhanced by the 1924 Summer Olympics in Paris and the 1928 Summer Olympics in Amsterdam from Latin American athletes.

English and Scottish engineers brought football (soccer) to Brazil in the late 1800s and played a leading role on the North American YMCA’s international committees and the American Playground Association training coaches.

Great frustration 1930-1960

The great frustration created a great challenge in the region. The collapse of the global economy meant that demand for raw materials had dropped significantly and damaged many of Latin America’s economies. Intellectuals and government leaders in Latin America are turning to old economic policies and turning to alternative industrialization of imports.

The goal was to create a self-reliant economy, which would have its own industrial sector and the larger middle class, and which would be safeguarded for the rise and fall of the global economy.

Despite the potential threat to the commercial interests of the United States, the Roosevelt Administration realized that the United States could not completely oppose the import option. Roosevelt implemented a good take policy and allowed the nationalization of some Latin American companies.

Mexican President Lazaro Cardenas nationalized American oil companies, out of which he made Pericles. Cardenas also oversaw the redistribution of land, meeting the expectations of many since the start of the Mexican Revolution.

The Platte Amendment was also repealed, exempting US legal and governmental interference in Cuban politics. World War II brought the United States and most Latin American countries together.

In the post-war era, the expansion of communism became one of the biggest political issues for both the United States and the government of the region. The onset of the Cold War forced governments to choose between the United States and the Soviet Union.

After the 9th Costa Rica Civil War, the nation established a new constitution and became recognized as Latin America’s first legitimate democracy however, the new Costa Rican government, which was now constitutionally required to ban the presence of a permanent army, did not seek regional influence and The neighbor was further distracted by the conflict with Nicaragua.

Throughout the twentieth century, a number of socialist and communist revolts spread throughout Latin America, but the most successful was in Cuba. Under the leadership of the Cuban Revolution, Fidel Castro was against the rule of Fulgencio Batista, who had been Cuba’s main dictator for six years.

From the 1860s, the Cuban economy concentrated on sugar cane, of which 82% was sold in the American market during the twentieth century. Despite the repeal of the plot amendment, Cuba had considerable influence in both American politics and everyday life.

In fact, Cuba had the reputation of being an “American brothel”, a place where Americans could enjoy all kinds of licenses and illicit pleasures, even if they had cash. Despite the socially developed constitution of the 9th, Cuba was subjected to the obstruction of constitutional rule by dictators such as corruption and Batista. Batista began his final stint as head of government in the 12th coup.

The coalition formed under the revolutionaries hoped to restore the constitution, reorganize the democratic state and liberate Cuba from American influence. The revolutionaries succeeded in the fall of Batista on January 7, 919.

Castro, who first declared himself a secular, began a reform and nationalization program on May 7 that disbanded the Eisenhower administration (1-5), and as a result, the United States severed diplomatic relations, frozen Cuba’s wealth in the United States. And the nation was banned in the 1960s. The Kennedy Administration (1-5-196363) is the authority

Perform funding and support for the Cuban invasion by refugees. The attack was unsuccessful and worsened the position of the revolutionary government. Cuba officially declared itself a socialist and publicly became an ally of the Soviet Union.

The military cooperation between Cuba and the Soviet Union, which included the establishment of Cuba’s intercontinental ballistic missile, led to the October 192 Cuba missile crisis.

Military rule and revolution at the end of the 20th century

During the 1970s, the Left achieved a significant political influence that encouraged the right-wing, religious authorities, and a large section of each country to support the coup to avoid being considered a communist threat.

This was further compounded by the Cuban and US intervention that led to political polarization. Most South American countries were governed by military dictatorships, which the United States supported.

In the 1960s of the History of Latin America, South Shankar’s rulers cooperated with Operation Condor to kill many leftist dissidents, including several urban guerrillas.

The Washington sensation

The set of specific economic policy systems was promoted by Washington, DC-based institutions such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the World Bank, and the US Treasury Department for crisis-hit developing countries. The 1980s and ’90s of the History of Latin America.

In recent years, several Latin American countries, led by socialist or other leftist governments, including Argentina and Venezuela, have promoted (and are somewhat underdeveloped) policies against Washington’s consensus. (Other Latin counties, along with the left governments including Brazil, Chile and Peru, have in fact adopted most policies).

Criticism of the policies promoted by the International Monetary Fund was also criticized by some US economists, such as Joseph Stiglitz and Dani Rodrique, who were sometimes described as “radical” policies of the International Monetary Fund and challenged the US Treasury. Stiglitz, whose treatment of the individual economy “fits into one size fits all”.

Twenty-first century

In some countries, left-wing political parties have emerged in power since the 2000s or 1990s. Venezuela’s Hugo Chavez, Brazil’s Lula da Silva and Dilma Rousseff, Fernando Lugo of Paraguay, Nestor and Christina Kirchner of Argentina, Taborie Vazquez and Jose Muzica of Uruguay, Lagos and Bachelet Manuel of Chile, Jubilee Zivile, Bolivia, Chile. Deposed by D’atat), and Rafael Cory of Ecuador It is part of this wave of leftist politics that often declares itself as socialist, Latin American, or anti-imperialist.

Turn right

In the blue countries under the right-wing government and in the red countries under the left-wing and center-left governments until 2019

The conservative wave (Portuguese: onda conservadora) is a political event that originated in South America in the mid-’20s. In Brazil, it started roughly when Dilma Rousseff, in a tough election, won the presidential election of 20, defeating the fourth term of the Workers Party in the highest position of the government.

Furthermore, according to Antonio Augusto de Queiroz, a political analyst with the Inter-Union Division of the Parliamentary Advisory Division, the National Congress, elected at 25, is likely to be considered the most conservative since the “democratization” movement. Attached members of parliament to the conservative parts as rural, military, police and religious.

The subsequent investigation into the economic crisis and corruption scandal in the aftermath of the 20th triggered the right-wing movement that sought to shield ideas from anti-left liberal policies and economic liberalism and conservatism.

The British colony of America, Danish colonization of America, the Dutch colony of United States, New Netherlands, French New France, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish, New Spain, Conquistador, Spanish Yucatan conquest, the Spanish conquest of Mexico, Spanish mission in California, Swedish

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