September 25, 2021
Spanish Colonization of the Americas

Spanish Colonization of the Americas

(Last Updated On: April 16, 2021)

Spain became rich with gold and silver found after conquering indigenous civilizations in Mexico and South America is called the Spanish colonization of the Americas. However, conflicts with the Indians and the failure to find large silver or gold deposits made it difficult to persuade the inhabitants of the colony. This article will be discussing many interesting facts on the Spanish Colonization of the Americas.

Spanish Colonization of the Americas

The Spanish settlement in that area was largely confined to religious missions, several small civilian cities, and military posts aimed at preventing the occupation of Russia, France, and England. By Spain, Spain had established the first civilian city in Texas, a city that eventually became Laredo; And not before 1769, Spain settled in California as a part of the Spanish colonization of the Americas.

Based on religious conversion and military control, Spain hampered economic development in its American colonies. In order to protect Spain’s own producers by pursuing an economic philosophy order known as mercantilism, Spain banned trade, banned the production, suppressed local arts and crafts, inhibited the growth of cities, and prevented civilians from being sold to soldiers as a part of the Spanish colonization of the Americas.

All the government’s trade was required to operate through Veracruz and high excise duty was imposed which greatly increased the cost of transportation. It had exclusive use on tobacco and gunpowder and prohibited the capture of wild horses. Nevertheless, Spain left a lasting impression on the southwest.

Organizations like the Rodeo and the Cowboys (Vaccaro) had their roots in Spanish culture. Place names also testify to the Spanish heritage of this region as a part of the Spanish colonization of the Americas. Los Angeles, San Antonio, Santa Fe, and Tucson all founded Spanish.

To date, the Spanish pattern of organizing cities is found throughout the region around a central plaza on the outskirts of churches and official buildings. Spanish architectural styles – adobe walls, tile roofs, wooden beams, and intricate mosaics – continue to feature the southwest.

Introducing European livestock and plants, the Spanish colonists transformed the economy, environment, and physical appearance of the Southwest. The Spanish introduced horses, cows, sheep, and goats, as well as tomatoes, peppers, Kentucky bluegrass, and various weeds.

When the animals devoured the highland grasses of the region, a new and distinctly southwestern environment was created, one containing cactus, sagebrush, and mesquite. The Spaniards also transmitted tropical and tropical diseases, reducing the Indian population by fifty to ninety percent.

It is equally important that the Spanish assets in the attitude towards class and color were different from those of the English colonies as a part of the Spanish colonization of the Americas.

Most colonists were of mixed ethnic background, and the Spanish colonial race continued throughout the colonial period. In general, Mestizos (people of mixed Indian and Spanish descent) and Indians were concentrated at the lower levels of social structure.

Even in the colonial period, the northern border of New Spain served as a lighthouse of opportunity for poor Mexicans. The early Hispanic settlers paved the way for attracting Mexican immigrants in the future.

In the early and mid-sixteenth centuries, Englishmen imagined North America as the basis for Spanish piracy and harassment. However, at the turn of the century, Englishmen began to think more seriously about North America as a place of serious settlement: as a market for English goods and as a source of raw materials and products such as Furs.

English promoters claim that colonization of the New World has given England many benefits. It will not only serve to combat Catholic Spain, but it will also provide England with raw materials and markets for manufactured goods.

America, too, will provide a place for the poor dispatches of the English and ensures that they contribute to the country’s wealth.

In the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, the number of English poor grew rapidly. As a result of the Traditional Tihar common lands (used for growing sheep), many ordinary people were forced to become wage laborers or otherwise be forced to support them as encounters or beggars.

Despite the failed attempt to settle the famous “Lost Colony” Royano in Newfoundland and along the coast of present-day North Carolina, England established Jamestown, the first permanent North American settlement, as a part of the Spanish colonization of the Americas.

The wetland is located along the James River in Virginia. Rivers, residents of Jamestown, have suffered horrific death rates in their first years. Immigrants were only fifty with a chance of surviving five years

The London-based Virginia firm financed the Jamestown campaign, which believed that precious metals would be traced to the area. From the beginning, Jamestown has been in conflict with patients and with Indians.

About 1.5 Algonquians lived in Indian territory, divided into about 5 tribes. About 30 tribes were a confederacy led by Pawan.

Food was the primary source of conflict. More interested in searching for gold and silver than farming, the residents of Jamestown (many of whom were elite or their servants) were unable or unwilling to work. When the English began to occupy Indian food stores, Powhatan stopped supplying them, forcing the settlers to rely on frogs, snakes, and even decaying corpses.

Captain John Smith (1580? -1631) was twenty-six years of age at the time of landing. Smith, a farmer’s son, had already lived an adventurous life before coming to Virginia as a part of the Spanish colonization of the Americas.

He fought the Dutch army against the Spaniards and the Ottoman Turks in Eastern Europe when he was captured and enslaved. He later fled to Russia before returning to England.

Smith, who served as president of the Jamestown Colony from 1608 to 1609, needed to work as a settler and trade food for the Indians.

Smith returned to England after being injured in a gun battle accident in 160।. After his departure, the conflict between the English and the Powhatan Confederation intensified, especially after the colonialists began clearing the land for tobacco.

In a volume describing the history of the English colony in Virginia, Smith describes a famous event in which Pocahontas (1595? -1617), Powhatan’s 12-year-old daughter, saved him from execution. Although some were questioned whether this happened (since Smith failed to mention it in the first edition of his chronicler), it may have been a “staged event” through a broad adoption ceremony, which Pavatan symbolically made Smith his vassal or servant. Through a similar program, the Powhatan people included outsiders in their society.

Pocahontas appeared in the Colonial Record in English, when he was carried on an English ship and taken captive. Negotiations for his release failed, and in 1614, he married John Rolfe, who introduced tobacco in Virginia to the colonial colony. It is uncertain whether this marriage represented an attempt to forge an alliance between the English and the Powhatan.

In the beginning, Virginia was a death trap. All but 600,000 of the first 1.5 migrants died within a few years of arrival. Virginia was a society where the life span was very short, diseases spread widely and fatherless children and multiple marriages were in circulation.

In contrast to New England, which was originally settled by families, most of the settlers in Virginia and surrounding Maryland were lonely men. Before the colonies were decisively led to slavery at the end of the seventeenth century, cultivators relied on white slavery in England, Ireland, and Scotland.

They wanted men, not women. In the early and mid-17th century, about four men came for each woman as a part of the Spanish colonization of the Americas.

Why did so many people come to this unhealthy area? To raise tobacco, which was introduced in England in the late sixteenth century. In the early modern period, there was the development of new forms of work and new forms of socialization, along with many other consumer products such as tea, coffee, and chocolate.

Tobacco appeared to relieve boredom and stress and to increase people’s attention for a long time. Tobacco production required a large labor force, composed primarily of white-haired servants, who were transported to Virginia for four to seven years of service.

Lacking high-quality precious minerals or other products, it appeared that Jamestown was an economic failure. Ten years later, the settlers discovered that Virginia was the ideal place for tobacco cultivation, which was recently launched in Europe.

As tobacco production quickly drained the soil of nutrients, the English began to acquire new land along the James River, spreading to Indian hunting grounds.

In 1622, Opchenko, the successor of Powhatan, attempted to wipe out the English in a surprise attack. The two warned the English converts to Christianity; Still, 347 settlers or about a third of the English colony died in the attack. The war continued for ten years, followed by an uncomfortable peace.

In 1644, Opchenkopf launched a last, desperate attack. After nearly two years of war, where about six colonists were killed, Opeknov was captured and shot, and the survivors of the Confederation of Powhatan were reduced to just 2, agreeing to obey the English rules.

Raising tobacco requires a huge labor force. At first, it was not clear that this labor force would consist of enslaved Africans. The Virginians experimented with various labor sources, including Indian slaves, convicted slaves, and white slave servants.

Since the English were believed to be populated by buffaloes and paupers, the colonists imported surplus English to grow tobacco and to produce dyestuffs, potash, Persian and other goods imported from other English countries.

Generally, young men or women signed indenture contracts in their late teens or early twenties. In the New World, a servant worked for several years (usually four to seven) free of charge as a part of the Spanish colonization of the Americas.

The situation of slavery servants in early Virginia and Maryland was not completely different from slavery. Employees can be bought, sold, or leased.

They may also be physically beaten for disobedience or escape. Unlike slaves, they were released at the end of their term of employment, their children did not inherit their dignity, and they received a cash payment as “arrears of liberty.”

The English author Daniel Defoe kept parts of his novel Flanders (1683) early in Virginia. Defoe clearly describes the indivisible words of the people living in Virginia: there were convicted men who were convicted of the death penalty, and those who were “brought by the ship’s master to sell them as slaves, as we call them, Dear, however, they are more properly called slaves.

George Alsop, a Maryland serviceman in Maryland, echoed this sentiment. The servants “spent their lives” here and there by millions in Virginia and elsewhere planted that wonderful tobacco, which was all smoked and, for the most part, badly abused, “and, he adds, this” insatiable habit is certainly a part of this. Poor slaves need to be fed and sustained by bloody sweat. “

Black slavery had gradually regained its roots in the American colonies. Historians now know that a small number of Africans lived in Virginia before 1616, the year that a Dutch ship sold about twenty blacks (probably from the West Indies) to the colonists as a part of the Spanish colonization of the Americas.

By the mid-1960s, the number of white indentured jobs was sufficient to meet the labor demand in Virginia and Maryland. Then, in the mid-1660s, the supply of white servants declined rapidly. Many factors contributed to the growing crisis of servants. English birth rates began to decline and wages in England increased due to competition from low-paid jobs.

This huge fire that burned much of London created a need for labor to rebuild the city. In the meantime, Virginia and Maryland have become less attractive because of the relatively scarce growth of the land. Many have opted to move to Pennsylvania or the Carolinas, where opportunities were high. To replenish its labor force, planters in the Chesapeake region are increasingly turning to slave Africans.

In 1680, only seven percent of the population in Virginia and Maryland consisted of slaves; Twenty years later, that number was 22 percent. Most of these slaves did not come directly from Africa but came from Barbados and other Caribbean colonies or the Dutch colony of the New Netherlands, which the British conquered in 1664৪ and named New York.

In seventeenth-century Virginia, the condition of blacks was extremely complex. Some were permanently canceled; Others, such as interned servants, own their property and get permission to marry, and are free at the end of their employment as a part of the Spanish colonization of the Americas.

Some were even allowed to testify against whites in the court and to buy a white servant. In at least one county, black slaves were sued for their success by proving that they were baptized. Even across the racial aspects, there was a surprising degree of sexual intercourse and marriage tolerance.

However, in the late 1630s, English colonists began to distinguish between the status of white servants and black slaves. In 1639, Maryland explicitly stated in the first colony that baptism as a Christian does not make slaves a free man.

In the 1660s and 1670s, Maryland and Virginia adopted laws specifically designed to defame blacks. These laws deprive people of interracial marriage and sexual relations and the inheritance of property. Other laws prohibited blacks from carrying weapons or traveling without written permission.

In 1669, Virginia declared in the first colony that killing an innocent slave during the general punishment was not a crime. That same year, Virginia banned masters from slavery, unless they were freed from the colony. Virginia also voted for any white man or woman to marry a black, mulatto, or Indian as a part of the Spanish colonization of the Americas.

White slaves had better status with the imposition of a more rigorous system of racial slavery. Unlike slaves, white slaves and freelance workers could not be whipped naked. As Ian historian Edmund S. Morgan suggests, strengthening apartheid contributed to the development of democracy, freedom, and the commitment of equality among white men.

In 167676, conflicts between backcountry farmers, landless ex-indentured servants, and coastal planters in Virginia broke out in violence in an incident known as the Bacon Rebellion. The Virginia colonial government failed sufficiently to protect them against the Indians, led by wealthy landowner Nathaniel Bacon in Jamestown, robbed the back county rebels of their enemies’ gardens, and offered to release any of the princes who joined them.

In the midst of the uprising, the bacon dies in the stomach. Without his leadership, the rebellion collapsed, but for fear of servant unrest, the peasants encouraged white-spotted servants to replace them with black slaves, leaving a skin color distinct.

In 1660, there were less than a thousand slaves in Virginia and Maryland. However, in the 1680s, their numbers have tripled, to about 4,500 to 12,000 as a part of the Spanish colonization of the Americas.

In 16th-century England a religious movement known as Puritanism began that sought to eliminate the Church of England from all parts of Roman Catholicism.

The Puritans objected to church classification and church rituals and practices that lacked biblical approval and did not encourage priests above their congregation.

At the end of the sixteenth century, some Puritans, known as separatists, became convinced that the Church of England was so corrupt that they removed from it and established their own congregation. In 1609, a group of separatists (later known as Pilgrims) fled Holland from England to escape the corruption around them.

In his classic history of the Plymouth Plantation, Pilgrim leader William Bradford (1588-1657) explains why the Pilgrims decided to leave the Netherlands in 1619 and establish a new community in the New World. In this selection, he further describes how the Pilgrims were assisted by an Indian named Squanto.

In the seventeenth century, the whole Atlantic world was integrated in a whole new way, and the story of Squatto illustrates the impact that this transformation has had on real-life individuals and communities. Born on the 5th of January, an Indian was born in Pachuiset, Scanto grew up in the village of Pilgrim in 1627, adjacent to a settlement of 2,5 villages.

In 1414, Captain John Smith crossed the territory and abducted one of his lieutenants, Squato and twenty other Patcats. Spain’s Malaga Das plans to sell Indians to the market. After escaping to England, where he learned to speak English, Squanto returned to New England in England, only to discover that his village had been wiped out by a chicken insect epidemic – one of the epidemics that killed nearly 90% of the New England coastline. The people of Squawanco were then Wampans Yaga tribes had joined.

After the Pilgrims arrived, Squanto worked as an interpreter among the Wampanoag leaders, the Massasoit, and the colonialists, and taught the English how to plant Indian corn.

He also tried to use his position to challenge Massassoit’s leadership, informing the neighboring tribes that the Pilgrims would fight against them if they did not give them disease. Squanko’s plan to use its connections with Pilgrim to wrest power from MassWeat failed. Two years after the English settlement, Squanko became ill and died of an unknown disease.

No party played a more important role in shaping American values ​​than the New England Puritans. Seventeenth-century Puritans contributed to our country’s mission concept, its work ethic, and its moral sensitivity. Today, eight million Americans can trace their ancestry to the fifteen to twenty thousand Puritans who migrated to New England between 1629 and 1640.

However, very few people are often victims of caricature and ridicule. The journalist H.L. Menken defined Puritanism as “the fear of despair that anyone can be happy anywhere.” And especially in the 1920s, Puritans appeared as a symbol of every cultural trait hated by “modern” Americans.

The Puritans were often dismissed as hateful religious fanatics who were fierce with the arts and were eager to impose their strict “fatalistic” morals on the world around them as a part of the Spanish colonization of the Americas.

This stereotypical view is almost completely wrong rect Unlike much popular thought, Puritans were not sexually provocative. Although they strongly condemned sexual relations outside of marriage – collecting fines or even whipping adulterers, adulterers or abusers or giving birth to children outside the marriage – they attached a high value to marital bonding.

The Puritans also did not abstain from alcohol; Although they object to being drunk, they do not believe that alcohol itself is a sin. They were not opposed to artistic beauty; Although they were skeptical about theater and visual arts, the Puritans valued poetry.

In fact, John Milton (1603-1674), one of England’s best poets, was a Puritan. Even the connection of the Puritans with the drab color is wrong. They especially liked the red and blue colors.

Although the Puritans sought to reform to obey God’s law, they did not establish a church-run state. Although they believed that the government’s primary purpose was to punish lawbreakers, very few people were as committed as the Puritans in separating church and state.

Not only did they reject the idea of ​​establishing a church court system, but they also prohibited ministers from holding public office.

Perhaps most notably, the Puritans in Massachusetts held annual elections and extended their right to vote and the rights of all “freemen”. Although the term was primarily limited to church members, it meant that a larger portion of the adult male population could vote in Massachusetts than in England (about 55 percent, compared to about 33 percent in England).

John Winthrop (1606-1676) was a well-known landowner who served as governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony for most of its early history. Unlike the Pilgrims, Winthrop and other Puritans traveling to Massachusetts were not separatists. Instead of trying to avoid the corruption of the wicked world, they hoped to establish an authentic church in New England that created a model for churches in England.

The idea of ​​a covenant was a central element of the Puritan social and religious life. All social relations – between Gods and people, ministers and congregations, magistrates and members of their communities, and men and their families – were conceived in terms of an agreement or agreement that relied on consent and mutual responsibility.

For example, seventeenth-century New England churches were formed by a voluntary agreement among members who were elected by their own ministers. Similarly, governments in Plymouth Colony (before it merged with Massachusetts) and New Haven Colony (before it was annexed to Connecticut) were based on contractual terms.

In every seventeenth-century New England colony, the government rested on its own accord. Governors and legislative assemblies are usually elected each year by the Freemen of the colony. In contrast, England appointed the governor of Virginia, and in Maryland, the governor was appointed by the Colvert family, who owned the colony. Even marriage was considered a contract. Connecticut divorced nearly a thousand between 1670 and 1799 as a part of the Spanish colonization of the Americas.

John Winthrop (1606-1676), in this famous article written on Arabella during his journey to New England in 3030, announced that the Puritan had signed a contract with Christian Shaw to establish a genuine Christian community, where rich people show charity work and the poor work while working to exploit their neighborhoods.

Don’t avoid If they obey this agreement, God Shabar will set them an example to the world – a “city on a hill”. But if they break the agreement, the whole community will feel God’s wrath.

In his emphasis on the importance of a stable community and mutual accountability between rich and poor, Winthrop clearly criticized the disruptive social and economic changes that rapidly transformed English society.

As a result of the enclosure of Sheep Timberland common lands, which was used to collect growing sheep, many rural laborers were thrown off the land and created huge floating populations. About half of the villagers leave their communities every decade.

At his call for tightly knit communities and families, Winthrop was striving to restore a social norm that was breaking down in England as a part of the Spanish colonization of the Americas.

There were significant demographic and economic differences between the Chesapeake region and New England. Due to the cold winters and low population density, seventeenth-century New England was probably the healthiest region in the world. After the initial period of high mortality, life expectancy rapidly rises to our own comparative level.

Men and women, on average, lived about 65 to 70 years longer than England, 15 to 20 years longer. The result was that the first society in the history of New England in the seventeenth century, where grandparents were common.

Originally descended from families that came in the 3030s, New England was a relatively stable society that settled in compact cities and villages. It never developed a major crop for exporting any results, and about 90 to 95 percent of the population was employed for livelihoods.

One can see more of the South, but the death rate is higher and the sex ratio is more imbalanced. In New England, males are more than the first generation of about 3 to 2 females. In the New Netherlands, however, there were two males for each female, and the ratio was six to one in Chesapeake.

Where the population of New England became self-sufficient in the early 1630s, New Jersey and Pennsylvania could not achieve it until the 1660s, and Virginia until the 1700s. Virginia was a much more mobile and unpredictable society than New England.

New England’s indigenous peoples found it much more difficult to fight against the occupied English colonists than in the southeast as a part of the Spanish colonization of the Americas.

For one thing, the northeast was much less densely populated. Epidemic diseases triggered by European fishermen and fur traders reduced the population of coastal Indians in New England by almost 90 percent in the early 1620s.

Furthermore, the region was divided into politically autonomous villages with a long history of bitter tribal hatred. These national factors allowed the rapid expansion of the Puritans throughout New England.

Some groups, notably Massachusetts, whose numbers had dropped from about 20,000 to just 50 in 1631, allied with the Puritans and agreed to convert to Christianity in exchange for military protection. But in the 1960s the migration of Puritan colonists to western Massachusetts and Connecticut triggered intense warfare, especially with the Pequot being the strongest people in the region.

The English people attacked a Piket ship and accused several sailors of killing; In retaliation, they now set off on a blockade of Rhode Island, Rhode Island. About 30 colonies were killed in the Pikut raid. A group of Puritans and Narragansett and Mahogany Indians surrounded and set fire to the main Piquet village in the Mystic River.

In the history of Plymouth Plantation, William Bradford describes the destruction of a fire in the main village of Piquet, where at least five Indians were killed: “Those who escaped from the fire were killed with a sword; some were cut into pieces, others were thrown with their rapists [swords].” … seeing them burn like this in a fire and the blood currents did not change Seeing give off very scared.

“Remnant of slavery was sent to the West Indies. During the war of Pikuat, about 800 of the 3,5 killed Pikuat. In his epic novel Moby Dick, Herman Melville named his doomed whaleship “The Pecode”, which contains explicit references to previous events in New England.

Although most of the population in New England was Puritan, these people did not agree on religious doctrine as a part of the Spanish colonization of the Americas.

Spanish colonization of the Americas

Some, like the Pilgrims in Plymouth, believed that the Church of England should be abandoned, while others felt like leaders of the Massachusetts Bay that the English church could be reformed. Other factors that divided the Puritans included who could be admitted to church membership, who could be baptized, and who could join.

Disagreements with religious beliefs led to the formation of several new colonies. In 1636, the Massachusetts minister, Cambridge Thomas Hooker (1586-1647) established the first English settlement in Connecticut. While he was convinced that the government should rest in the free will, he extended the franchise beyond the church members.

Two years later, the Massachusetts community set strict standards for church membership and founded the New Haven colony to fight moral turmoil, based on its laws on the Old Testament. This colony was annexed in 1662 by Connecticut.

In the Massachusetts Bay Colony dismissed Salem Minister Roger Williams (1604-1683), claiming that the civilian government did not have the authority to force worship in any particular way. Williams rejected the norm that civic authorities could force the Sabbath observance.

Equally disturbing, he argued that the Massachusetts royal charter did not justify the occupation of Indian land. Instead, Williams argued, the colonists had to negotiate fair deals and pay for the land.

Instead of returning to England, Williams traveled to Narragansett Bay, where he founded Providence, which later became the capital of Rhode Island. Williams was president of the Rhode Island Colony from 1654 to 1657.

Like many Americans in the nineteenth century, New England Puritans rejected the idea that prices should be freely fluctuated according to the law of supply and demand. Instead, they believed that there was a fair wage for every business and a fair price for every good deed.

The overpriced amount was “oppression”, and the authorities wanted the law to prevent prices or wages from rising to the customary level as a part of the Spanish colonization of the Americas.

Yet within a few decades of the settlement, New England became increasingly integrated into the Atlantic economy as the Puritans of the organic, intimate masses, a stable, self-reliant economy, and carefully calibrated social classification began to shine.

In an effort to maintain social discrimination against traditionalists, the Massachusetts Bay Colony adopted a repression law in 1651, which stated that individuals could wear some articles of clothing and jewelry.

But in the early part of the second half of the seventeenth century, a growing number of New Englanders engaged in a complex system of Atlantic trade, selling fish, farms, and timber, investing in shipbuilding and transporting tobacco, wine, sugar, and slaves, not only to England but throughout Europe.

Trade with northwest Africa was especially important with the West Indies and the Atlantic Islands. This national trade was highly competitive and risky, but over time it gradually formed a separate class of merchants, traders, and commercial-based farmers.

For nearly half a century after the Pequot War, New England was free of major Indian warfare. During this time, the indigenous population of the region declined rapidly and suffered severe loss of land and cultural independence.

In the meantime, the New England Puritans launched a concerted campaign to convert Indians to Protestantism. New England’s leading missionary John Eliot convinced about 2,5 people to live in “cities of prayer,” where they were expected to adopt white customs. The New England Indians were also obliged to accept the legal authority of the colonial court.

In the face of death, disease, and cultural isolation, many New Englanders have decided to strike back. In 1675 the chief metacomate of Poconoquet (called English Philip by the English) formed a military alliance with about two-thirds of the Indians in the region. as a part of the Spanish colonization of the Americas.

In 1675, he led the invasion of Swansea, Massachusetts. Over the following years, both sides raided villages and killed hundreds of victims. Twenty-nine New England cities were destroyed during the nineties.

King Philip’s War was the most devastating war in New England’s last largest Indian war, compared to the size of the population in American history.

In 1691, an Indian slave named Tituba, a daughter of Salem, Massachusetts was accused of witchcraft. The fear of witchcraft was ignited in the confession of Tituba that resulted in the execution of 3 men and women, one was sentenced to death, and more than four more were awaiting trial in prison.

For two decades, New England was in the throes of severe social pressure. The clash with the Indians, known as King Philip’s War in 1675, killed more people than any other war in American history. A decade later, in 1685, the second James’s government repealed the Massachusetts charter.

Sir Edmund Andros, a new governor, tried to unite New England, New York, and New Jersey into a single Dominion in New England as a part of the Spanish colonization of the Americas. He sought to abolish elected colonial rallies, restrict city meetings and impose direct control on the recruitment of militias, and allow the first public celebration of Christmas in Massachusetts.

After replacing William III James II as King of England in Willi৮৯, the Andrews government was ousted, but voting for Massachusetts required the elimination of religious qualifications and increased religious tolerance in communities such as Quakers. By the end of the seventeenth century, the number of black slaves in New England had increased dramatically.

The Piquet War of 1637 made New England the first known slave. Although many Indian men were taken into slavery in the West Indies, many English women and children were used as domestic workers in New England.

The Massachusetts Body of Liberty recognizes perpetual and hereditary slavery (though in Massachusetts in 4343 the Massachusetts court sent back slaves who had been abducted by New England sailors and brought to America). Tituba is one of the rising slaves from the West Indies.

An Arawak, probably born in northeastern South America, was enslaved in Tituba Barbados before being brought to Massachusetts in the 1980s. His master, Samuel, was a credit agent for sugar planters before becoming minister at Salem, Massachusetts, in Paris, Barbados.

Towards the end of 1691, two girls from a Parisian home and two from a nearby home began to display strange physical symptoms, including their itching and shortness of breath. To combat these symptoms, Tituba created a “witch” out of Rye’s food and urine.

This attempt at counter-magic led to the arrest of Tituba for witchcraft. She and two other women – Sara Good and Sara Osborne – were accused of involving the girls. Although Tituba confessed, the other two women protested their innocence. Was well executed; Osborne died in prison.

Elaine G. As Bresso points out, Tituba’s confession that he joined the devil and that Dyke’s ‘hypocrisy’ aroused the fear of a diabolical conspiracy to infiltrate and destroy the Syrian community. In his testimony, Tituba conceived of significance in Indian and African as well as in English.

Tituba later reaffirmed his confession that he had given false testimony to save his life. He claimed that “his master had beaten him and abused him in another way, accusing him of recognizing her and … her sister-in-law.”

In Colonial America, there was no sharp division between the slave South and a free-labor north. New England was involved in the Atlantic slave trade between the 1600s and the 1780s. In the years before the American Revolution, slavery was to be found in all American colonies.

In the middle of the eighteenth century, slaves numbered about 8 percent in Pennsylvania, 5 percent in Virginia, and 5 percent in South Carolina. In the second half of the eighteenth century the fifth family of Boston was enslaved; And in New York City, 1746, slaves performed about a third of the city’s manual labor.

In the north, slaves were used for employment in both agriculture and non-agriculture, especially for the western Indian markets of southern Rhode Island, Long Island, and New Jersey, providing high productive farming and stockpiling. The slaves not only worked as domestic workers for the urban elite – cooking, doing laundry, and cleaning the stables – they also worked in rural industries, salt works, ironworks, and tanneries.

In general, slaves were not divided into separate ethnic groups; Instead, they stayed in back houses, louts, attics, and alley shacks. Many slaves are divided into lower-class white. However, in the middle of the eighteenth century, racial discrimination increased, as a growing proportion of white working-class people began to express intense resentment over the competition for slave labor.

The African American response to racial discrimination and discrimination in the North was evident through the growing awareness and awareness of Africa and the establishment of separate African churches and philanthropic societies.

Two parallel struggles for power took place in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries and in northern North America. One was an empire struggle between France and England. Four times between 1689 and 1763, France, England, and their Indian allies fought for domination.

The other was a power struggle between the Indian groups, making the Iroquois and various Algonquian-speaking people stand against one another.

These two struggles were closely linked. Both France and England depended on the Furs and the Indian people for military assistance. During this time the English were more than French by about 20 to 1, and so the survival of French Canada depends on the support of the Algonquian-speaking countries.

Native Americans had alliances with England and France to provide wealth, gifts, supplies, ammunition, and prisoners who were accepted or sold by Indians. This national alliance saved the white settlers from unconsciousness in Indian territory.

At peace, however, the Indians found England and France much more difficult to play against each other. England and France destroyed the Natchez, Fox, and Yamassi nations after the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713, during the peace period of Europe.

The distinctive feature of American society during the colonial era was its population diversity. By European standards, America was racially, religiously, and regionally diverse. The first federal census conducted in that federal৯০ showed that one-fifth of the entire population is African American.

Of the whites, three-fifths were English in descent and the other fifth were Scottish or Irish. The rest were from Dutch, French, German, Swedish, or any other background.

This striking variation was originally part of the way colonial America settled. In the early seventeenth century, Europe’s most vibrant countries scrambled to establish foreign colonies and trade posts. The Dutch set up strips in Brazil, Curacao, New Netherlands, Pennsylvania, and West Africa.

In the Bahamas, Barbados, Jamaica, and Nova Scotia, as well as along the mainland Atlantic coast; The French are in the Caribbean, Canada, Guadalupe, St. Domingue, Louisiana, and Martinique. The first phase of the colony was highly decentralized.

The early settlements were established by commercial entities, religious organizations, and independent entrepreneurs, not under the direction of the government.

By the middle of the seventeenth century, however, it became clear that colonies could be an important source of national wealth for the patriarchs. Mercantilist thinkers viewed colonies as a source of income and a source of raw materials, a market for manufactured goods, and as a way to strengthen a country’s economic self-reliance.

The English government took a more systematic approach to colonization; It was aggressively relocated to Jamaica, New Netherlands, and New Sweden, and began to provide territory for a particular individual or people known as individuals.

Although the main purpose of the new colonial system was to expand trade and establish greater control over the colonies, many owned land speculated on utopian fantasy in their given lands. George Calvert was the first owned colony of Lord Baltimore.

He envisioned Maryland as a haven for Roman Catholics and as a place where he could rebuild feudal discipline. Imagine a classical manual society with a proprietary governor and hereditary priesthood, a group of eight natives who received land gifts in the Carolinas.

William Penn sought refuge from himself and other Quakers. Owned by a group headed by James Oglethorpe, Georgia debuted as a haven for players and a buffer against Spanish Florida.

In fact, colon proved impossible to integrate colonial development into predetermined patterns. In order to attract settlers, it proved necessary to guarantee religious freedom through a representative rally, granting generous land grants and self-government.

But it was not just a plan to establish a feudal manner or to maintain a failed ownership rule. Georgia owners prohibited strict alcohol importation and illegal slavery (not out of moral concern about slavery, but slavery would encourage economic discrimination and discourage working practices among white settlers).

Nevertheless, within a few years, the Georgian opposition and the withdrawal of the colony caused the trustees to lift sanctions on alcohol and slavery.

After eighty years of war, the Dutch Republic gained independence from Spanish rule in 9y5. The seventeenth century was the Golden Age of the Netherlands, at which time the Dutch created some of the world’s best painters, such as Rembrandt, great philosophers like Spinoza, and great mathematicians and astronomers like Christian Huygens.

In the golden age, the Netherlands also developed colonial empires with bases extending from Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and Brazil to Aruba, Antilles, and the southern tip of Africa.

It was the only western country allowed to trade with Japan. One of the Dutch major maritime powers, in that major, of the 20,700 ships employed in European commerce, was 5,000,000.

In an attempt to find a way around the United States, the Dutch East India Company sent Henry Hudson and a 25-year-old crew to search the westbound lanes. On his third trip in the third, Hudson sailed to the present New York City port and sailed from the river to Albany, thus establishing a claim to the Dutch in the area.

In 1621, the Dutch West India Company (which was established to trade West Africa and the United States) began to establish a settlement in New Netherlands, which now surrounds New York, Delaware, New Jersey and parts of Connecticut.

From the beginning, the New Netherlands was a multi-ethnic and multi-religious society. About half of the population was Dutch; The rest included French, Germans, and Scandinavians, as well as a small number of Jews in Brazil.

The Dutch considered New Netherlands as a small part of their colonial empire, originally valued as a source of furs. But many merchants were attracted by the promise of freedom of colony worship, local self-government, and free land that would be tax-exempt for ten years.

However, even before an English fleet occupied New Amsterdam in English6464, many residents of the colony were sidelined due to corruption, trade monopoly and indirect taxes and ongoing conflicts with neighboring Indian countries.

Between 1652 and 1674 the Dutch made three sailings with England. The English hoped to fight shipping and trade control from the Dutch but failed. As a result of this conflict, the Dutch won what is now Suriname in England, the English got the New Netherlands from the Dutch.

In 1664, the English sent a fleet to occupy the New Netherlands, surrendering without a fight. The English changed the name of the colony to New York, after James the Duke of York, who received a certificate in the area from his brother King II Charles.

The Dutch briefly occupied the Netherlands in The73।, but the following year the colony returned to the British.

Under Dutch rule, the New Netherlands was suffering from racial tensions, political instability, and prolonged Indian wars that hampered immigration.

There is a similar problem under the English administration. One source of tension is the refusal of a delegation of the Duke of York, which was not established until 1616.

Another source of tension is the “patronage” system, which was established in 1629 to encourage the settlement of the Dutch West India Company. The patrons were given huge resources, which they rented out to tenant farmers.

The patrons have the power to control these national aspects of the inhabitants as they move, establish a business and have the right to marry. The Duke of York allowed Dutch landowners to hold these assets and gave his supporters an equally large net of land. In 1703, five families participated in approximately 1.75 million acres of land in New York. By 1750, these families had become one of the richest landed elites in colonial America.

Although these landowners lost their feudal privileges as a result of the Revolution, they owned about 1.8 million acres of land in the early nineteenth century. Between 1839 and 1846, tenant farmers renting these properties staged an “anti-lease war”, demanding that New York tenants rent their farms in 1846, demanding lands that they deemed appropriate.

After slave owners described their enslaved people as faithful, righteous, and satisfied, slave owners always feared slave revolt. These fears are exacerbated in times of crisis when they provide a sacrificial goat for anxiety.

In 1741, New York City executed 34 people for a conspiracy to burn down the city. Thirty African American men were burnt to the shoulder and three more black men, two white men, and two white women were hanged. An additional 70০ blacks and seven whites were banned from the city.

The trial of a firearm conspiracy is a disappointment to the New York economy and a punishing winter that coincides with a severe food shortage.

The British Empire fought with France and Spain, and it was reported that the Spanish would invade New York or threaten to organize a ceasefire. These were the events that followed the news of the Stony slave rebellion in South Carolina.

One-fifth of Manhattan’s population, including black slaves, can easily be trusted with the view that they probably planned to burn the city with the help of Irish Catholic immigrants. Authorities allege that there was no organized plan to set the city on fire and kill its residents.

However, there is evidence of a fire incident and it is seen that some slaves spoke of retaliating against their slaves and gaining their independence. Probably the first slave uprising in the New World began in 1522 in Hispaniola.

In the early eighteenth century, there was a slave uprising on Long Island and in New York City in 1712. South Carolina’s slaves rebelled, ending the Stono uprising. By 1739, when 20 slaves had seized firearms, more than twenty white people had been killed and local militias planted several trees before stopping them.

In 1740, a slave conspiracy was uncovered in Charleston. In the late eighteenth century, slave revolts took place in Guadeloupe, Grenada, Jamaica, Suriname, St. Domingue (Haiti), Venezuela, and the Windward Islands.

Many escaped slaves, known as the Maroons, fled to remote areas like Spanish Florida or the Great Dismal Swamp in Virginia.

The main consequence of slavery recovery throughout the United States is the massive execution of blacks. In 1212, when an African slave was set on fire in a building in New York and attacked and killed about nine whites who came for the fire, fourteen slaves were hanged, three were burned to death, one was starved, and one was severed.

The social upheaval ignited by the seventeenth-century English Civil War created many raging, millennial religious groups, including Diggers, who denied personal property; And the ranters, who claimed to worship the Lord God through drinking, smoking, and fornication. One of the extremist religious groups that emerged during the turbulent years of the could still survive the Society of Friends or the Quakers.

Currently, Quakers are often associated with rigor and self-discipline, but in the early years of this community, members behaved extremely rebelliously. Some walked to the church, where they condemned the ministers as dumb dogs and renters.

They refused to swear or take the oath before the magistrates. They opposed the war and gave women the right to speak in public, stating that both genders were equal in their ability to interpret the teachings of God’s Word as a part of the Spanish colonization of the Americas.

Quakers reject the Orthodox Calvinist belief in the prediction. Instead, the Quakers insisted that release was available to all. It came not from an institutional church, but from the interior, following the “inner light” of the spirit of the inner Shawar.

Because while feeling religious encouragement, friends seemed to tremble that they were known as Quakers.

Quakers faced violent persecution in England as well as in several American colonies. About 1.5 Quakers were imprisoned in England between 1660 and 1885 as a part of the Spanish colonization of the Americas.

Edward Older catalogs Quaker abuse in New England:  Quaker was imprisoned; Two Quakers hit 139 times, leaving one “beat like a jelly”; Branded H letters for one more cult following with 39 stripes whipped, And three Quakers were executed.

Even in New York, which tolerated a variety of religious disciplines, Quakers faced hostility. Upon arriving on Long Island in 1957, some Quakers were fined, jailed, and banned by the Dutch, who (like the Puritan New England) were annoyed by Quaker women preaching.

Over time, Quakers found successful ways to channel their moral idealism and religious enthusiasm. The group established weekly and monthly meetings that imposed structures and discipline on members and demonstrated their power against various forms of social evil, including slavery in the mid-eighteenth century.

In the early nineteenth century, Quakers engaged in moral reform movements in wildly disproportionate numbers as the size of this community. Quakers was one-third of the feminist and opposition leaders in the early nineteenth century.

The Quakers had significant success in attracting a number of socially prominent individuals to their side. Of this, there was nothing more important than William Penn (1644-1718), the son of an English naval officer and a friend of James II, who became a Quaker at the age of 22.

He was imprisoned several times for writing and promoting Quarism, including eight months in prison at the Tower of London as a part of the Spanish colonization of the Americas.

In the 1980s, Penn asked Charles II of England to pay $ 80,000 a question to Penn’s father, giving him land in the American desert. The following year, he was given a certificate. Penn views his new colony as a “holy test” that will provide the colonists with religious freedom and cheap land.

When he came to Pennsylvania in Charlev2, he made a treaty of friendship with the Indians, paying them for most of the land that King Charles had given him.

Pennsylvania was a significant success from the start, compared to many other colonies. This is no major Indian war experience. Demand for strong West Indian grain yields and Philadelphia has made it a major port. Yet the colony did not survive the dream of a “peaceful kingdom” in Penn.

In 1885 he requested in the Colonial Legislative Assembly: “Shaver, be not so governmental in your love for me and the poor country; so open to noise and your dissatisfaction.”

The owners of South Carolina dreamed of establishing a feudal society to grant their land. They held huge estates for themselves and, with the help of English philosopher John Locke, devised a plan known as the Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina, which gave them the power of feudal lords.

The project called for a three-level hereditary priesthood – comprised of “proprietors,” “landgraves,” and “cassicas” – who would own 40 percent of the colony’s land and serve as council of lords and recommend all laws to parliament-elected minors. By the owners.

But like other feudal philosophies, it also failed. The South Carolina settlers virtually rejected all these plans, and the immigrants refused to move to the area until they were replaced by a more democratic government.

The immigrants of Barbados played a decisive role in the initial settlement of South Carolina in 1679 and 1680 and brought black slaves with them. Within a decade, they received a staple crop – rice – that they could raise with the help of slave labor.

The grain probably came from West Africa, and African slaves were already familiar with rice cultivation. The result was to transform South Carolina into a mainland society that bears close resemblance to the Caribbean. Slaves were actually infinitely more white than white, the colony had twice as many slaves as whites. In the early eighteenth century, about a third of South Carolina’s slaves were Indians.

The rapid growth of the slave population increases the scarcity of slave rebellion. In 1739, the Stony Rebellion, the largest slave revolt in colonial America, took place about twenty miles from Charleston. The rebels, led by a slave named Jamie, killed seven planters and about 20 whites while taking shelter in Spanish Florida. Within a day, however, Stony rebels were captured and killed by white militias.

North Carolina also had several bitter Indian-white war scenes. In 1717, in which case the whites occupied their land and kidnapped the Indians as slaves, the Tuscans destroyed New Bern. During the next two years, the colonial militia killed or enslaved a fifth of the Tuskers with the help of the Yamas.

Many survivors later moved to New York, where they became the sixth nation of the Iroquois Confederation. Subsequently, in 1715, the Yamasis became allied with the growing white traders and merchants, and aligned themselves with the creeks and tried to destroy the colony.

With the help of the Cherokee the Colonial Militia aggressively removed from success, essentially ending the Indian resistance against the spread of white in the Carolinas.

Before the American Revolution, the only colony in Georgia temporarily tried to ban slavery, because the founders did not want any workforce that would compete with the work providers they planned to transport from England.

The Settlers, however, illegally imported slaves into the colony, forcing the proprietors to abandon the idea of ​​a slave-free colony.

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