June 17, 2021
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List of 150+ Largest Empires in History Once Ruled the World

(Last Updated On: April 16, 2021)

Many empires rose and fall and we have seen a long list of largest empires in History with vigour, uniqueness, traditions, inventions, prosperity, boom, excellence, wonders, surprises, killings, brutality, lechery, cruelty, and what not! In this article, I am going to share a collection of list of largest empires in History.

List of largest empires in History

The range of the empire in this list of largest empires in History is labelled as the area of dry land that was under the control of a respective empire. In case of a debate of estimation, these entries are sorted according to the minimum range of estimates. From this list of largest empires in history, it is found that the biggest empire of all time by the size of the British Empire. However, the main parts of the largest empire of all time were spread over the oceans, that makes the Mongolian Empire as the largest joint empire, the Eurasian entity in the consideration.
The others in the list had no reason to lagging behind as one of the dominating from this list of the largest empires:
Empire Maximum land area
million km2 million mi2 % of world Year
British Empire 35.5 13.71 26.35% 1920
Mongol Empire 24.0 9.27 17.81% 1270 or 1309
Russian Empire 22.8 8.80 16.92% 1895
Spanish Empire 13.7 5.29 10.17% 1810
Qing dynasty 12.16

14.7

4.70–5.68 9.02%–10.91% 1820 or 1790
Second French colonial empire 11.5 4.44 8.53% 1920
Abbasid Caliphate 11.1 4.29 8.24% 750
Umayyad Caliphate 11.1 4.29 8.24% 720
Yuan dynasty 11.0

13.72

4.25–5.30 8.16%–10.18% 1310 or 1330
Xiongnu Empire 9.0 3.47 6.68% 176 BC
Empire of Brazil 8.337 3.22 6.19% 1889
Empire of Japan 7.4–8.51 2.86–3.285 5.49%–6.32% 1938 or 1942
Iberian Union 7.1 2.74 5.27% 1640
Eastern Han dynasty 6.5 2.51 4.82% 100
Ming dynasty 6.5 2.51 4.82% 1450
Rashidun Caliphate 6.4 2.47 4.75% 655
Göktürk Khaganate 6.0 2.32 4.45% 557
Golden Horde Khanate 6.0 2.32 4.45% 1310
Western Han dynasty 6.0 2.32 4.45% 50 BC
Achaemenid Empire 5.5 2.12 4.08% 500 BC
Second Portuguese Empire 5.5 2.12 4.08% 1820
Tang dynasty 5.4–10.76 2.08–4.15 4.01%–7.99% 715 or 669
Macedonian Empire 5.2 2.01 3.86% 323 BC
Ottoman Empire 5.2 2.01 3.86% 1683
Roman Empire 5.0 1.93 3.71% 117
Tibetan Empire 4.6 1.78 3.41% 800
Timurid Empire 4.4 1.70 3.27% 1405
Fatimid Caliphate 4.1 1.58 3.04% 969
Eastern Turkic Khaganate 4.0 1.54 2.97% 624
Hephthalite Empire 4.0 1.54 2.97% 470
Hunnic Empire 4.0 1.54 2.97% 441
Mughal Empire 4.0 1.54 2.97% 1690
Great Seljuq Empire 3.9 1.51 2.89% 1080
Seleucid Empire 3.9 1.51 2.89% 301 BC
Italian Empire 3.798–4.25 1.47–1.64 2.82%–3.15% 1938 or 1941
Ilkhanate 3.75 1.45 2.78% 1310
Chagatai Khanate 3.5 1.35 2.60% 1310 or 1350
Sasanian Empire 3.5 1.35 2.60% 550
Western Turkic Khaganate 3.5 1.35 2.60% 630
Western Xiongnu 3.5 1.35 2.60% 20
First French colonial empire 3.4 1.31 2.52% 1670
Ghaznavid Empire 3.4 1.31 2.52% 1029
Maurya Empire 3.4–5.0 1.31–1.93 2.52%–3.71% 261 BC or 250 BC
Delhi Sultanate (Tughlaq dynasty) 3.2 1.24 2.37% 1312
German colonial empire 3.199 1.24 2.37% 1912
Song dynasty 3.1 1.20 2.30% 980
Uyghur Khaganate 3.1 1.20 2.30% 800
Western Jin dynasty 3.1 1.20 2.30% 280
Sui dynasty 3.0 1.16 2.23% 589
Samanid Empire 2.85 1.10 2.12% 928
Eastern Jin dynasty 2.8 1.08 2.08% 347
Median Empire 2.8 1.08 2.08% 585 BC
Parthian Empire 2.8 1.08 2.08% 0
Rouran Khaganate 2.8 1.08 2.08% 405
Byzantine Empire 2.7–2.8 1.04–1.08 2.00%–2.08% 555 or 450
Indo-Scythian Kingdom 2.6 1.00 1.93% 20
Liao dynasty 2.6–4.5 1.00–1.74 1.93%–3.34% 947 or 1111
Greco-Bactrian Kingdom 2.5 0.97 1.86% 184 BC
Later Zhao 2.5 0.97 1.86% 329
Maratha Empire 2.5 0.97 1.86% 1760
Jin dynasty (1115–1234) 2.3 0.89 1.71% 1126
Khwarazmian Empire 2.3–3.6 0.89–1.39 1.71%–2.67% 1210 or 1218
Qin dynasty 2.3 0.89 1.71% 220 BC
First French Empire 2.1 0.81 1.56% 1813
Kievan Rus’ 2.1 0.81 1.56% 1000
Mamluk Sultanate 2.1 0.81 1.56% 1300 or 1400
Third Portuguese Empire 2.1 0.81 1.56% 1900
Almohad Caliphate 2.0–2.3 0.77–0.89 1.48%–1.71% 1200 or 1150
Cao Wei 2.0 0.77 1.48% 263
Former Qin 2.0 0.77 1.48% 376
Former Zhao 2.0 0.77 1.48% 316
Inca Empire 2.0 0.77 1.48% 1527
Kushan Empire 2.0–2.5 0.77–0.97 1.48%–1.86% 200
Liu Song dynasty 2.0 0.77 1.48% 450
Northern Wei 2.0 0.77 1.48% 450
Western Roman Empire 2.0 0.77 1.48% 395
Ayyubid dynasty 1.7–2.0 0.66–0.77 1.26%–1.48% 1200 or 1190
Gupta Empire 1.7–3.5 0.66–1.35 1.26%–2.60% 440 or 400
Buyid dynasty 1.6 0.62 1.19% 980
Eastern Wu 1.5 0.58 1.11% 221
Northern Qi 1.5 0.58 1.11% 557
Northern Xiongnu 1.5 0.58 1.11% 60
Northern Zhou 1.5 0.58 1.11% 577
Assyria 1.4 0.54 1.04% 670 BC
Eastern Maurya Empire 1.3 0.50 0.96% 210 BC
Liang dynasty 1.3 0.50 0.96% 502, 549, or 579
Kingdom of Aksum 1.25 0.48 0.93% 350
Shang dynasty 1.25 0.48 0.93% 1122 BC
Francia 1.2 0.46 0.89% 814
Srivijaya 1.2 0.46 0.89% 1200
Indo-Greek Kingdom 1.1 0.42 0.82% 150 BC
Mali Empire 1.1 0.42 0.82% 1380
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth 1.1 0.42 0.82% 1480 or 1650
Almoravid dynasty 1.0 0.39 0.74% 1120
Empire of Harsha 1.0 0.39 0.74% 625 or 648
Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty 1.0 0.39 0.74% 860
Holy Roman Empire 1.0 0.39 0.74% 1050
Khazar Khanate 1.0–3.0 0.39–1.16 0.74%–2.23% 900 or 850
Khmer Empire 1.0 0.39 0.74% 1290
New Kingdom of Egypt 1.0 0.39 0.74% 1450 BC or 1300 BC
Ptolemaic Kingdom 1.0 0.39 0.74% 301 BC
Qara Khitai 1.0–1.5 0.39–0.58 0.74%–1.11% 1130 or 1210
Scythia 1.0 0.39 0.74% 400 BC
Shu Han 1.0 0.39 0.74% 221
Tahirid dynasty 1.0 0.39 0.74% 800
Western Xia 1.0 0.39 0.74% 1100
First Bulgarian Empire 0.807 0.31 0.60% 927
Akkadian Empire 0.8 0.31 0.59% 2250 BC
Avar Khaganate 0.8 0.31 0.59% 600
Chu (state) 0.8 0.31 0.59% 300 BC
First Portuguese Empire 0.8 0.31 0.59% 1580
Huns 0.8 0.31 0.59% 287
Songhai Empire 0.8 0.31 0.59% 1550
Hyksos 0.65 0.25 0.48% 1650 BC
Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt 0.65 0.25 0.48% 550 BC
Austro-Hungarian Empire 0.62 0.24[25] 0.46% 1905
Caliphate of Córdoba 0.6 0.23 0.45% 1000
Visigothic Kingdom 0.6 0.23 0.45% 580
Zhou dynasty 0.55 0.21 0.41% 1100 BC
Kosala 0.5 0.19 0.37% 543 BC
Lydia 0.5 0.19 0.37% 585 BC
Magadha 0.5 0.19 0.37% 510 BC
Middle Kingdom of Egypt 0.5 0.19 0.37% 1850 BC
Neo-Babylonian Empire 0.5 0.19 0.37% 562 BC
Satavahana dynasty 0.5 0.19 0.37% 150
Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt 0.5 0.19 0.37% 715 BC
Western Satraps 0.5 0.19 0.37% 100
Second Bulgarian Empire 0.477 0.18 0.35% 1241
New Hittite Kingdom 0.45 0.17 0.33% 1250 BC1220 BC
Xia dynasty 0.45 0.17 0.33% 1800 BC
Middle Assyrian Empire 0.4 0.15 0.30% 1080 BC
Old Kingdom of Egypt 0.4 0.15 0.30% 2400 BC
Ancient Carthage 0.3 0.12 0.22% 220 BC
Indus Valley Civilisation 0.3 0.12 0.22% 1800 BC
Mitanni 0.3 0.12 0.22% 1450 BC1375 BC
First Babylonian Empire 0.25 0.10 0.19% 1690 BC
Aztec Empire 0.22 0.08 0.16% 1520
Elamite Empire 0.2 0.08 0.15% 1160 BC
Phrygia 0.2 0.08 0.15% 750 BC
Second Dynasty of Isin 0.2 0.08 0.15% 1130 BC
Urartu 0.2 0.08 0.15% 800 BC
Middle Hittite Kingdom 0.15 0.06 0.11% 1450 BC
Old Assyrian Empire 0.15 0.06 0.11% 1730 BC
Old Hittite Empire 0.15 0.06 0.11% 1530 BC
Ashanti Empire 0.1 0.04 0.07% 1872
Larsa 0.1 0.04 0.07% 1750 BC1700 BC
Neo-Sumerian Empire 0.1 0.04 0.07% 2000 BC
Lagash 0.05 0.02 0.04% 2400 BC
Sumer 0.05 0.02 0.04% 2400 BC

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